The Cluster contains all the hardware needed to control and read out various types of qubits. The Cluster can easily adapt to the given setup by adding functionality with each module connected. The choice of modules will vary depending on the platform and the device being controlled:
A typical setup has microwave drive lines for single or two-qubit gates, readout feedlines for frequency-multiplexed readout, and flux-lines for qubit biasing, two-qubit gates, and tunable coupling. The QCM-RF module can be connected directly to the microwave drive lines to drive qubit transitions. The QRM-RF module can be connected directly to feedlines for multiplexed readout of up to 6 qubits and it allows both transmission and reflection type of measurements. The QCM module can be coupled directly or via bias tees to DC sources like our SPI Rack to detune transition frequencies of SQUIDs with the lowest 1/f noise available.
More information can be found here: Superconducting Qubits.
In a typical device architecture, quantum dots can be used as spin qubits or for readout. For qubit manipulation via ESR or EDSR, QCM-RF modules are connected directly to the global microwave drive lines. The direct RF outputs of the QCM-RF operate in a wide frequency range, making the module suitable for GaAs, Si, and Ge spin qubits. The QRM is the single module line that can read out the state of the qubit via charge sensing, RF reflectometry, gate-based readout, or via microwave resonators. While the QRM module operates in the baseband regime from DC to 400 MHz, the QRM-RF module provides direct-RF outputs from 2 to 18.5 GHz. One module incorporates 6 sequence processors to allow multiplexed readout up to 6 frequencies. The QCM module can be coupled either directly or via bias tees to DC sources like our SPI Rack to connect to the gates for tuning barrier potentials and fast gate sweeps.
More information can be found here: Spin Qubits.
NV-Centers/Spins in Diamonds#
For spins in diamond, the QCM-RF modules can be connected directly to the microwave drive lines for qubit transitions. The direct RF outputs can be programmed to generate pulses for single-qubit operations in a wide frequency range from 2 GHz to 18.5 GHz. The QCM module drives AOMs and EOMs to shape laser pulses, using 4 analog outputs in the range of 0-400 MHz with an output amplitude range of ± 2.5V to support arbitrarily-long square pulses. The QRM module acquires digital and analog signals from photodetectors using 2 inputs and 2 outputs in the range of 0-400 MHz with input and output amplitudes in the range of ± 0.5V and has a trigger counter.
More information can be found here: NV-centers.